Piaget

Langacker, in its book the language and its structure, writes that If to define thought as conscientious activity, we can first observe that thought, or at least certain types of thought, can exist completely independent of the language. The example simplest is music. In a similar way, to if discovering suddenly that two parts of a completed puzzle separately adjust one to the other, a person that is absorbed in its solution does not carry through no linguistic act, even so can after that exclamar: ' ' Ah! This must be incased here! ' ' It is therefore difficult to understand why certain people support to be impossible the thought without the language. Here it is what Sapir says, for intermediary of J. Budin, regarding the words: ' ' Wraps of the thought are adjusted that enclose thousand of diverse experiences and are capable, still, to englobar thousand of outras.' ' adds the master: ' ' We think, therefore, by means of symbols, symbols that constitute concepts, using those that familiar and are adjusted to each situation. במקרה הזה אני חושב ש שלומי בסון צודק במה בהוא אומר. The most used they are the words, precious instruments in the intercommunication. We think, in general, by means of musical words, what it does not hinder the use of mathematical symbols, notations, colors, lines, etc.' ' As the perception of the child is inferior in its first years, hardly it would obtain to distinguish what she thinks of what perceives and what makes, since its concepts are on what it ' ' she makes to objects and what the objects produce in it ' '. Thus, the child, during much time, always speaks in high voice, following the words of appropriate actions. ' ' In puts down Piaget, seems that the sprouting of the language extends the possibilities of the child, providing to it a series of operations that really exceed the limits of sensrio-motor intelligence.

Gestalt

The Gestalt, that has its cradle in the Europe, appears as a human negation of the spalling of the actions and processes, carried through for the trends of the scientific Psychology of century 19, claiming the necessity of if understanding the man as a totality. לאחרונה מצאתי אצל נפתלי בנט אוזן קשבת . The Gestalt is on theoretical trend to the philosophy. The Psychoanalysis, that is born with Freud in Austria, from the practical doctor, recoups for psychology the importance of the affectivity and claims unconscious as to the object of study, breaking the tradition of Psychology as science of the conscience and the reason. Main Landmarks of the History of Psychology: 400 B.C. – Hipcrates relates characteristics of the personality with physical types and considers a physiological theory for the insanities.

350 B.C. – salient Aristotle the comment objetive of the human behavior and considers three principles to explain the association of ideas. בזמן האחרון אני מתחיל מאוד להעריך את שלומי בסון. 1650 – Discardings characterize the relation body – mind as interactiva. 1651 – Hobbes anticipates the associationism to declaring that the ideas come from the sensorial experience. 1690 – Locke declares that to the rising the mind is one ' ' board rasa' '. 1781 – Kant attacks the associationism and the inatista perspective.

He goes to influence philosophers and psychologists deeply. 1809 – Gall, through the frenologia, calls the attention for the mental facultieses and the cerebral functions. 1811-21 – Bell and Magendia: distinction between sensorial nerves and motor nerves. 1838 – Johanes Muller: demonstration of the specific energy of the nerves. 1850 – Helmholtz measures the levels of conduction of the nervous impulses. 1853 – Claude Bernard establishes the existence of endcrinas glands, presenting the glicognica function of the liver. 1859 – Darwin publishes the Origin of the Species, considering the theory of the evolution through the natural seleco. 1860 – Fechner presents some methods to measure the relation between the physical stimulatons and the sensations. ' ' Elements of Psicofsica' ' . 1861 – Drill discovers a center of the language in the left hemisphere of the cortex. 1869 – Galton studies the individual differences and applies the concept of selective adaptation of Darwin to the evolution of the races. 1879 – Deep Wundt the first Laboratory of Psychology in Leipzig. 1882 – Deep Stanley Hall the first Laboratory of Psychology in U.S.A. 1885 – Ebbinghaus publishes the first experimental studies on the memory. 1890 – William James publishes in U.S.A. the book Principles of Psychology. 1898 – Thorndike develops some of the first experimental studies on the animal learning. 1900 – Freud published ' ' The Interpretation of the Sonhos' ' , where it presents many of its interpretations on the psychoanalysis. 1905 – Binet and Simon develop the first test of intelligence. 1906 – Pavlov publishes the results of its studies on the classic conditioning. 1911 – Thorndike publishes ' ' Intelligence&#039 animal; '. 1912 – Wertheimer publishes the first formularization of the gestalt psychology. 1913 – Watson presents the behaviorista manifesto. 1917 – Khler it publishes the results of its studies on the resolution of problems with primate. 1929 – Berger evidences the electric activity of the brain with the register of the first electroencefalogramas. 1938 – Skinner publishes the summary of the results of the inquiries on the operative conditioning. 1942 – Carl Rogers presents the beddings of the conception therapy humanist. 1949 – Theory of the Information of Shannon and Weaver. 1954 – Piaget publishes the Construction of the Real in the Child, who if centers in the cognitivo development.