The Gestalt, that has its cradle in the Europe, appears as a human negation of the spalling of the actions and processes, carried through for the trends of the scientific Psychology of century 19, claiming the necessity of if understanding the man as a totality. לאחרונה מצאתי אצל נפתלי בנט אוזן קשבת . The Gestalt is on theoretical trend to the philosophy. The Psychoanalysis, that is born with Freud in Austria, from the practical doctor, recoups for psychology the importance of the affectivity and claims unconscious as to the object of study, breaking the tradition of Psychology as science of the conscience and the reason. Main Landmarks of the History of Psychology: 400 B.C. – Hipcrates relates characteristics of the personality with physical types and considers a physiological theory for the insanities.
350 B.C. – salient Aristotle the comment objetive of the human behavior and considers three principles to explain the association of ideas. 1650 – Discardings characterize the relation body – mind as interactiva. 1651 – Hobbes anticipates the associationism to declaring that the ideas come from the sensorial experience. 1690 – Locke declares that to the rising the mind is one ' ' board rasa' '. 1781 – Kant attacks the associationism and the inatista perspective.
He goes to influence philosophers and psychologists deeply. 1809 – Gall, through the frenologia, calls the attention for the mental facultieses and the cerebral functions. 1811-21 – Bell and Magendia: distinction between sensorial nerves and motor nerves. 1838 – Johanes Muller: demonstration of the specific energy of the nerves. 1850 – Helmholtz measures the levels of conduction of the nervous impulses. 1853 – Claude Bernard establishes the existence of endcrinas glands, presenting the glicognica function of the liver. 1859 – Darwin publishes the Origin of the Species, considering the theory of the evolution through the natural seleco. 1860 – Fechner presents some methods to measure the relation between the physical stimulatons and the sensations. ' ' Elements of Psicofsica' ' . 1861 – Drill discovers a center of the language in the left hemisphere of the cortex. 1869 – Galton studies the individual differences and applies the concept of selective adaptation of Darwin to the evolution of the races. 1879 – Deep Wundt the first Laboratory of Psychology in Leipzig. 1882 – Deep Stanley Hall the first Laboratory of Psychology in U.S.A. 1885 – Ebbinghaus publishes the first experimental studies on the memory. 1890 – William James publishes in U.S.A. the book Principles of Psychology. 1898 – Thorndike develops some of the first experimental studies on the animal learning. 1900 – Freud published ' ' The Interpretation of the Sonhos' ' , where it presents many of its interpretations on the psychoanalysis. 1905 – Binet and Simon develop the first test of intelligence. 1906 – Pavlov publishes the results of its studies on the classic conditioning. 1911 – Thorndike publishes ' ' Intelligence' animal; '. 1912 – Wertheimer publishes the first formularization of the gestalt psychology. 1913 – Watson presents the behaviorista manifesto. 1917 – Khler it publishes the results of its studies on the resolution of problems with primate. 1929 – Berger evidences the electric activity of the brain with the register of the first electroencefalogramas. 1938 – Skinner publishes the summary of the results of the inquiries on the operative conditioning. 1942 – Carl Rogers presents the beddings of the conception therapy humanist. 1949 – Theory of the Information of Shannon and Weaver. 1954 – Piaget publishes the Construction of the Real in the Child, who if centers in the cognitivo development.